About a quarter of Kuopio's surface is covered with water. Most of the water surface is made up of the large lakes such as Kallavesi, Suvasvesi, Syväri and Suuri-Ruokovesi. The ecological state of these big lakes is mainly good. Excellent water is found in Suvasuvesi. The status of Onkiveso, Maaninkajärvi and Suuri-Ruokovesi is satisfactory. In the North Savonia Water Management Operational Program for 2016-2021 several measures have been presented to improve the satisfactory status.
There are also plenty of small water areas in Kuopio which are sensitive to external burdens. The central urban area has twenty small lakes and ponds that have been tracked since the mid-1980s. Some of them have also been remediated.
The state of groundwater areas is mostly good. In the water management operational programme, the groundwater areas of Harjamäki-Käärmelahti and Nilsiä village have been classified as risk areas. The status of both regions is currently estimated as good. Protection plans have been drawn up for all groundwater areas.